Divergent Housing Price Trends In Mumbai And National Capital Region Crisi Research

CRISIL Research expects divergent price trends during the year in Mumbai and NCR (National Capital Region), the two largest residential real estate markets in India. In 2011, prices of houses are likely to decline in Mumbai, whereas prices will rise marginally in NCR. Further, the extent of price decline will vary widely across areas in Mumbai, whereas prices will inch up uniformly across areas in NCR.
CRISIL Research studied the price trend in three major supply pockets in Mumbai and NCR western suburbs (Goregaon, Malad, Kandivali and Borivali), Thane (Ghodbunder Road), and central suburbs (Dombivli and Kalyan) in Mumbai; and Noida and the outskirts of Ghaziabad and Faridabad in NCR.

City Reality reports offer an in-depth, area-wise analysis of residential, commercial and retail segments covering 400+ areas across 88 micro markets in 10 Indian cities. Read the real estate developer ratings at CRISIL that has developed two specialized products with their real estate research that help housing customers and financial institutions understand the intricacies.

Accounting for more than 50 per cent of total planned supply in each city, these major supply pockets would represent the trend in housing prices in the whole city. Mumbai and NCR would together account for more than half the 1.5 billion sq ft housing supply planned in India’s 10 leading cities up to 2013.

In Mumbai, falling demand, owing to diminished affordability, and rising interest rates will trigger a decline in prices in 2011. Prices of houses soared by 43 per cent in 2010, in the city’s three major supply pockets. Prices thus surpassed their peak values, attained in the first half of 2008, by 26 per cent, adversely affecting housing affordability. CRISIL Research therefore expects prices in Mumbai to decline by 8-10 per cent in 2011.
In NCR, prices will move up marginally because of relatively better affordability. Prices went up only by 6 per cent in 2010 in the capital region’s three major supply pockets. Prices in these areas currently are 15-20 per cent less than their peak values in the second half of 2007, making affordability relatively better in NCR than in Mumbai. CRISIL Research therefore expects average prices in the region to move up marginally by 3-4 per cent in 2011.

“Reduced affordability and a likely increase in interest rates by the Reserve Bank of India will subdue demand and depress housing prices in Mumbai in 2011. In NCR, relatively better affordability will prop prices despite any increase in interest rates,” explains Nagarajan Narasimhan, Director – CRISIL Research.

In Mumbai, the extent of the price decline would vary widely by area. Prices in premium locations like South Mumbai and Central Mumbai, which have an excess supply of houses priced at more than Rs 50 million, would decline sharply by 15-20 per cent over the next 12 months. Prices will decline more moderately, by about 6 per cent, in areas like Vasai and Virar, where affordability would be relatively better. In NCR, with prices increasing marginally across all areas, the trend, again, will be divergent.

Eco village-Best option for (+91-9582252134) home offices in Noida

Supertech Eco Village 3 is the newest inclusion to the Eco Village heritage and is probably an update to its past tasks. Supertech Eco Village 3 Noida Extension is probably the best of economic system homes in Greater Noida West. These flats are enclosed by lavish protect of greens which creates this position a great concoction for those who love to invest their time cooling around in the temps of characteristics.

The places where the developer has extended are Meerut, Bangalore, Delhi, Noida and Ghaziabad. Bangalore is completely a new position for the developer as it has quite lately released its first project in the -Silicon Valley’ by the name Supertech Micasa. These flats are an aspect of new trend of modernization which has hit the southern part of India just now. The position was much less designed before the introduction of developers like Supertech to the town and now there are developers who are trying to make the position a multiple storey forest. The first reason behind creating a new project in Bangalore is probably the increasing immigrations.

Supertech Eco Village 3 Greater Noida West is an appealing project of Supertech Ltd also because of top quality options in providing quality to its clients with this attempt. Eco Village 3 thus becomes an awesome financial commitment choice for those who have little to extra from their non reusable earnings.

With this thing in mind the Supertech Group launched Supertech Eco Village 1, and the other two installments namely Supertech Eco Village 2 & Supertech Eco Village 3. Supertech Eco Village Noida Extension has this far been the finest of quality residence in India which offers luxury to a common man at such affordable price tag. This is the first of the many reasons that make Supertech Eco Village Greater Noida West a great choice for living. The project has been such a hit that it the builder has to launch the latest of the Eco Village Noida ventures which is named Supertech Eco Village 4 Noida. The Eco village Projects offer everything which might be needed by the common man who lives in these apartments. These are 2, 3 & 4 BHK apartments which are surrounded by 82{8dac5dcb9f942b09754d29d206f8ecad2fe1c20701ee3d2765cee79f805470e6} of riveting greens, making this project eco friendly as well as affordable. Thus, if you want to see your family happy, then you will surely invest in this project. Website: –

Delhi Property – 16th Most Expensive Real Estate Market Of The World

Delhi, the capital of India, has been the real hotspot in the real estate industry in the country. In recent years, Delhi property market is growing at a phenomenal rate due to great improvement in the transport system, expansion plan of 65 km- long Delhi Metro Rail and the commencement of 2010 Commonwealth Games in the capital. A real estate consultancy has rated recently New Delhi as the 16th most expensive real estate market of the world and the costliest retail destination in India. The demand for real estate development is expected to remain robust across Delhi property market due to huge demand from IT/ITES sector.

Residential Real estate
Delhi residential real estate market segment is growing exponentially because of huge demand for housing from IT/ITES and foreign diplomats. South Delhi is the most happening residential place in Delhi property market and the rental values of residential properties like the flats, villas and duplex houses are extremely at higher end.

Commercial Real Estate
The leading retail brands in Delhi property estate market has generated huge demand for commercial space in the city because of its large format retailing and burgeoning demand from IT/ITES segment as well.

New Delhi commercial market space is broadly classified into:
Central Business District Connaught Place
Secondary Business District Nehru Place & Bhikaji Cama Place in South Delhi
Peripheral Business District Jasola, Saket & Noida.
Some of the major transactions in Delhi property market are:

Central Business District
Ministry of Finance 15,700 sq.ft.
Edelweiss 13,500 sq.ft.
Maquaire 7,000 sq.ft.
Atlanta 20,000 sq.ft

Secondary Business District

Nehru Place
Sunflag 3,500 sq.ft.

Porsche 14,000 sq.ft.
Sapient 22,000 sq.ft.
Hansgrohe 23,000 sq.ft.
Juniper Networks 8,000 sq.ft.

ICICI Prudential 10,000 sq.ft.

Peripheral Business District
LI & Fung 200,000 sq.ft.
Deloitte 70,000 sq.ft.
Ericsson 70,000 sq.ft.
Kyocera -12,000 sq.ft.
Fujifilm – 10,000 sq.ft
Accenture – 2,00,000 sq.ft
Sapient – 2,00,000 sq.ft
Amway 26,000 sq.ft

Thus, Delhi is a preferred place for investors worldwide and the city is a significant destination for leading MNCs, IT/ITES companies and corporate pouring lot of investments that in turn creating a hue demand for commercial real estate space in Delhi property market.

According to industry survey, Delhi real estate is considered to touch greater heights in the hospitality sector with 27 new hotels and serviced apartments with more than 4900 rooms in the next 3-4 years. And, the other interesting and fascination information is that Delhi real estate is expected to touch minimum hundred shopping malls by end of 2010 due to burgeoning retail space demand in Delhi real estate market.

Shamirpet Real Estate Property In Hyderabad

The real estate india is the fasted growing sector in the country. Hyderabad is the best place and improving the business and live for like cosmopolitan cities Hyderabad. Every body think and assume the life will go smooth and smart, the life which the way. As Hyderabad grew to be a cosmopolitan city and a prominent IT capital of India, Greater Hyderabad too started gaining attention. This region has seen immense development in a short span of time owing to its ultra-modern planned structure and provision of the basic amenities. As the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad became known for large scale developments in IT sector, real estate in Hyderabad began to grow by leaps and bounds. The tremendous growth of realty industry left the city congested and choked ultimately shifting the spotlight to nearby cities like Greater Hyderabad.
Greater Hyderabad has a high population like metro cities and the rapid development of its real estate has become instrumental in supporting them. Property development trends follow similar paths in all the cities of India as consumerism patterns remain identical. There has been a swift upsurge in the demand for residential property in Greater Hyderabad chiefly because of better educational and employment opportunities.
Shamirpet is a Mandal comes under Rangareddy District and 30km north to Hyderabad city. Shamirpet is 22 km away from Secunderabad Railway station and 25 km from away from the Hyderabad Airport(Begumpet) and about 50km from New International Airport in Shamshabad (Rajiv Gandhi International Airport).

Shamirpet is famous for the Shamirpet Lake. People recognize the place by Shamirpet Lake which is also known as Pedda Chervu. Best place for picnic spot like Deer Park, Shamirpet Lake, Ratnalayam temple (Lord Venkateshwara) which is newly constructed and nice place to visit and pray god . From secunderabad , patny cross roads the drive to shamirpet is quite pleasant barring the three traffic junctions at Jubilee bus-stand and trimulgherry cross roads. After the first 7 Kms the moment you get down the Alwal flyover, the drive to shamirpet gets increasingly pleasant with nice cool breeze due the cantonment region and greenery on the sides of the roads. Katta maisamma temple is famous near the Shamirpet Lake People come there in huge lots especially during weekends.
The real estate in India is moving at a fast pace and the industry has seen the upward trend over the last few years. In terms of employment generation and GDP contribution towards the country, this industry in India ranks at second position all over the globe. All the states and cities of India are witnessing growth in real estate and Hyderabad is no exception to this. Hyderabad is undoubtedly a growing city with large number of big projects coming up like IT parks, star hotels, Textile parks, Hardware parks and many others which leads to the rise of the industry in the city.
The opening of Shamshabad International Airport which is located at a distance of only 22Kms from the city of Hyderabad has resulted in more and more international tourist visiting the place and thus gives rise to overall economy including the real estate. One of the other major factors which lead to the booming of this industry in Hyderabad is the growing IT sector which has resulted in more IT companies and its employees in the city and thus need for more properties including official complexes, residential places, and others.
No matter whether it is a commercial property or a residential one, the prices in Hyderabad are rising. Foreign as well as local investors are also showing interest in investment in Hyderabad as the city has delivered large number of successful projects from time to time. Besides the posh areas like Banjara Hill and Jubilee Hills, the outskirts of the city including Nanakramguda, Manionda, Gopanpally and others have also become the areas of real estate investment. So no matter whether you are looking for plots, apartments, offices, commercial spaces, resorts, villas or apartments, Hyderabad real estate has all your requirements.

Subba Rao (CEO)
Ghar4u Pvt Ltd
Lakshmi Kohinoor Residency
Rno-14, Nandi nagar, Banjara hills
Ph : 040-30284428

Who Invented Super Built Up

All over India, super built-up concept has taken its place in real estate transactions. It is applicable to residential units, commercial premises and now to the open vacant land.

Although, there is no place of such concept in any law for the time being inforce, the transactions cannot take place without it.

Question is, who invented and why ? When builders started selling concepts instead of flats in early 80s, they were asked to sell it on carpet and no due charges were given for the extra amenities they had provided.

The balcony was charged extra premium by the BMC and builder mounted balcony area on carpet area of the flat. And slowly he started adding areas of passage, common staircase, lift wells, compounds, terrace, gardens etc on the carpet area to maximise his profits.

The permissible built up ratio was 18{8dac5dcb9f942b09754d29d206f8ecad2fe1c20701ee3d2765cee79f805470e6} that time and is still applicable. But the trend changed over the years. Builders started mounting 23{8dac5dcb9f942b09754d29d206f8ecad2fe1c20701ee3d2765cee79f805470e6} in early 90s then 30{8dac5dcb9f942b09754d29d206f8ecad2fe1c20701ee3d2765cee79f805470e6} in late 90s and nowadays majority of the builder sells nothing less then 33{8dac5dcb9f942b09754d29d206f8ecad2fe1c20701ee3d2765cee79f805470e6} to 45{8dac5dcb9f942b09754d29d206f8ecad2fe1c20701ee3d2765cee79f805470e6} on residential units, 50{8dac5dcb9f942b09754d29d206f8ecad2fe1c20701ee3d2765cee79f805470e6} to 200{8dac5dcb9f942b09754d29d206f8ecad2fe1c20701ee3d2765cee79f805470e6} on commercial premises. Government agencies like MHADA, SPPL, DDA and CIDCO are also following the trend.

Landlords are also now very well informed on such practice and hence sell the open land to developers by adding 33{8dac5dcb9f942b09754d29d206f8ecad2fe1c20701ee3d2765cee79f805470e6} of saleable area.

This is not the practice in Mumbai alone. Ahmedabad, Delhi, Rajkot, Bangalore, Pune, Nashik, Kolkatta, Chennai and elsewhere in India are following the trend.

When Mr. Deepak Parikh, chairman, HDFC, boldly said in CREDAI meeting at Bangalore that the sale must be on carpet area, no developer came forward to announce his intention to sell at carpet area except Mantri Group. CREDAI has itself imposed code of conduct which clearly says that the carpet area must be mentioned in sale agreement. The Confederation of Real Estate Developers Association of India failed to impose such code.

In Model Agreement under Maharashtra Apartment Ownership Act, it is mandatory to mention carpet area in sq.mtrs. And the model agreement is mandatory to be followed for entering into an agreement. But sellers never follows the model Agreement, instead drafts one sided agreement to protect them and attack the purchaser without any fault.

A thought was coined by MCHI office bearer, in a talk show on some channel recently, that we give extra amenities, extra open space, extra lifts and other amenities, we are charging for that. And super built-up area is just a method for calculating the rates. Either you pay Rs. 2600/- as super built up or Rs. 3800/- on carpet, my flat will cost Rs. 18,00,000/- for 2 BHK.

Open spaces are mandatory to be left alone in the Development Rules of BMC. The builder has to keep such open space. By just decorating and using it as USP for the project, it doesn’t give him any reason to mount on the carpet.

It is already written in DC Rules and proven that lift wells and staircase do not count in the total constructed FSI, hence charging such area on carpet is not justified.

Compounds also cannot be charged on carpet, because anything open to sky is not saleable. Non saleable areas cannot be sold by proxy. It cannot be counted in area of occupation. Also, open car parkings are been sold, hence builder should not charge the open compounds twice, once sold as car parking and secondly mounting such areas on carpet. Even open car parking cannot be sold.

Lastly, the customer who register their documents on super built-up area pays higher property tax, society charges for life time. He pays the taxes for lifetime on the area which he is not occupying and only mentioned on paper. Higher stamp duty and Registration charges on super built-up area is also not justified.

It was indeed a great concept two decades ago, but now when transparencies are discussed, the seller must be Caveat Emptor. Let the buyer be beware of everything which he is paying for. Founder Convenor Mr. K.V. Satyamurthy, FAAI rightly raised the voice as “Maap Mein Paap Nahin”. An upcoming rating agency sent a SMS to this author, said “Earth will swell 45{8dac5dcb9f942b09754d29d206f8ecad2fe1c20701ee3d2765cee79f805470e6}, if developed by a Mumbai developer”

[Counter arguments are invited. Just mail on ]

Get Tremendous Value By Making Investment In Real Estate

Are you planning to make your money invested in the right sector? Many people think real estate sector has not matured yet and it is not safe to put your money into this sector as it involves huge risk. With India soon going to be the super power, there are numerous investment opportunities in Indian real estate sector. Cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Gurgaon, Hyderabad, Bangalore, and Chennai have tremendous potential in terms of real estate investment opportunities. A large number of people today prefer making investment in real estate rather than agriculture or stock markets.

Today needs for urbanization has triggered the growth of real estate in India. This is the reason why a large number of real estate developers are coming up with various housing projects in different parts of the country. Today, everyone is talking about the booming real estate development in India. With the gates for foreign investment in India are open, there are much more growth possibilities in this sector. The single reason behind this boom is the growing Indian economy and growing needs for housing and urbanization.

Nowadays you would see various malls, shopping malls, multiplexes that are the real examples of booming Indian real estate market. As rural population is moving towards metros, the demand for low-cost homes is raised a lot. In order to meet this demand, various real estate developers are launching low cost housing development projects.

Being the national capital of India, Delhi offers unmatched opportunities to make investment in real estate. A large number of real estate projects are into execution in the NCR region, thus making Delhi real estate the leading one. You will see all the major real estate developers such as DLF, Amrapali, Emaar MGF, OMAXE, Bharti Realty, Mahindra have their housing projects running in NCR region.

Making an investment in real estate ensures hefty returns in future and this sector has no chances to show any type of decline in the near future. This is the reason why most of the insurance companies and finance companies putting their investors money into real estate sector.

If youre also looking to investment your money in a sector that guarantees good returns, then I would suggest making investment in real estate which is the leading investment option in todays times. Make sure to conduct a comprehensive research before choosing a real estate development company for investment purpose. This research will help you determine the best cities to investment in Delhi.

Chennai Real Estate

India is zooming away in real estate industry no lesser than any other part of the world. In fact India real estate is booming in all the direction be it Chennai real estate, Hyderabad real estate or Cochin real estate, all the cities are skyrocketing when it comes to real estate. A few year back Chennai real estate has shortage of housing options, but now it has superfluity of residential options. Chennai is recognized as a preferred place of corporate people and MNC. This city has earned a benchmark on three major classes financial costs, expert manpower and outstanding business environment. Chennai is a home of chief automobile sectors also and on the northern area port is gearing up with expansion of housing units. In fact the Chennai residential real estate sector is going though a change in market dynamics and over increase in real estate purchasing activity. City home loans and augmenting rates have resulted in major price escalation in past few months in Chennai.

In the last 12 months Chennai real estate sector has faced an extremely enthusiastic trend. With about magnified costs driven by BPOs, real estate had gone through an incredible growth and it has become a dream of commoner. Such a tremendous growth could be visible in Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad that has extensive plans and lucrative commercial projects. Some places in Chennai such as MGR nagar and Anna nagar, which was about rupees 70 lakhs per ground in 2002, are not quoting Rupees 95 lakhs per ground. When looked on the wider term, Chennai real estate had contributed a lot to the story of increasing over all India real estate. As per a recent study Chennai real estate have established a addition of 3.5 million square feet of housing sector in past quarter and now the market is likely to catch up excellent time ahead in winter. Especially, the demand for real estate in Chennai is on a large part obsessed by the growth of IT and BPO industry. It has not only perked up the capital value of commercial property, but also fuelled the demand of residential areas.

Industry experts believe that Chennai real estate has massive demand impending in almost every sector — particularly commercial, residential and retail. It has also proved that investing in real estate Chennai has been providing many investors with activist cash flow, tax advantages and pleasure of making an impact on peoples lives. Investment property is generally the loveliest aspects of your monetary portfolio. Even the foreign funds and investors are now investing in Chennai real estate as it is fourth largest metropolitan city in India and has lot to offer the foreigners. Before investing do your required homework and do consult any expert real estate agent to defend yourself from hidden troubles. Chennai real estate is known as the recurrent wealth builder, but everything has to be done with knowledge and skills. With real estate property boom all across Chennai, you can touch the new heights of money making.

Apartment blocks and apartments for sale in the city of Jaipur and construction companies of the la

Various online resources can be used in tracking a property for buying and selling in the amazing city of Jaipur, these resources are extremely helpful in finding top quality apartments, commercial properties and office spaces within the city of maharajas, top of the line builders, construction companies and entrepreneurs own and maintain their own websites and online portals which can be used in this regard, social media and online social networking platforms are also used in this regard by the users.

Apartment blocks and apartments for sale in the city of Jaipur and construction companies of the largest city of Rajasthan are utilized by the citizens of the city and the outsiders. Flats in Jaipur for purchase are plenty. These flats and apartments are offered for sale by large scale building contractors and construction companies. They are also offered for sale by the city’s realtors and real estate brokers, these professionals also own and maintain their own websites and web portals which are commonly used by the buyers and the sellers.

Flats in Jaipur for purchase and sale and top builders in Jaipur area are utilized for different propositions and they entail various characteristics and features within their ranks; some of the key features and characteristics which make them famous and truly worthwhile are mentioned in the following lines to come;

The city is commonly known as the city of the maharajas, this is so because the city is thronged with the ancient palaces and temples which are offer culture and rich tradition to the city. It is visited throughout the year by the people from all over India. Foreigners also visit the city during winters. These outsiders invest in the real estate and the property which the city has to offer and most of them buy properties all across the city. It happens so that people and especially the non resident Indians or the NRIs visit the city during winters, they come for the festivities and the cultural and the religious festivals. Upon their arrival they also visit the new apartment blocks and state of the art office spaces and invest accordingly. In the winters the prices of the property tend to rise and the trend continues till the end of the March. After March the prices tend to slow down and it is the best time to purchase, whereas, on December and January are the best time to sell. The professionals offer quality services to their clients. They perform physical inspections and help with the paper work. Usually when a person selects a property he or she negotiates for a reasonable price to buy the property. The professionals offer solutions to the buyers and the sellers and provide help with the paper work and other integrities. The file lease papers on the behalf of their clients and officiate in the handing over and taking over ceremonies.

Boom In Real Estate Market Of Gujarat

In the industrial map of India, Gujarat has a significant place as its citizens are well known for their entrepreneurial talent. As part of the global real estate property market boom, Gujarat too is gearing up for welcoming the change. By introducing world-class real estate infrastructure to the soil, many real estate companies have made it an ideal place for living and organizing profitable businesses. Currently, we witness a phenomenal rise in the demand for both residential and commercial complexes all over the region.

It seems the Gujarat investors are returning to real estate business after an interval. Many of them are now eyeing fresh projects to put their money in. The growing demand of real estate brokers tells it all. In the present day, as the infrastructural development is at its peak, the real estate sector in the state witness a steady growth. Property developers in state offer high-end flats and bungalows to locals as well as non-resident Indians. It is a known fact that the NRIs are one of the major investors in Gujarat residential property and this makes the real estate developers focus on luring them in foreign investment.

There are a huge number of luxurious flats and bungalows are coming up in the state, especially in Ahmedabad. It is a fast growing city and thriving for achieving its ‘mega city” status. This encourages the property buyers to purchase properties in this city. Investing in real estate market in Gujarat is the wisest option for the investors at this moment as the state witness a huge growth in real estate development.

Real estate in Ahmedabad is primarily divided as residential properties and commercial properties. The real estate brokers in Gujarat predominantly crack down on Ahmedabad real estate as it is one of the promising real estate property markets in India. What”s more, it is a known fact that many major industries are eyeing on real estate properties in Ahmedabad, it is wise to invest on property at the right time. If you are looking for such opportunities, it is always better to approach a real estate agent or a real estate broker as they are the ones who know better about the localities and the prices of the properties. Try to find out professional real estate agents that are into the real estate business for long time.

Kolte Patil Life Republic Apartment Presenting by Kolte Patil Builder

Kolte Patil Life Republic Hinjewadi Pune is the most affordable apartment which is exclusively designed by the Kolte Patil Group each and every apartment of the Kolte Patil Life Republic is very furnished and very suitable for the today’s life style now the area of Hinjewadi is very desired location for living. Kolte Patil is the most recognized Real Estate Developer who is only known for their exclusive service to the customer and reliable service also, Kolte patil group also a very active real estate builder, they Lunch their project in every year for the Common Folks and also for the folks who wants to live in magnificent way of life they also provide you to the contemporary life style in to the apartment. If you want to be with this apartment or if you want to be buy Kolte Patil Life Republic in Unique range of Price then the apartment is absolutely you’re with in the short period of time, Kolte Patil Life Republic Provide you easy connectivity to the Mumbai and Pune highway and also closed proximity to the School, Hospital, Shopping Complex and the best connectivity to the Indian Railway and Airport lines, now we comes to the surrounding of the project is covered by the neat and clean environment and the area of the apartment is also designed according to the need of the peoples by which you can get an pleasant surprise environment in to the Apartment which makes your life more easy and more comfortable in Kolte patil Life republicApartment.

HighLights of Kolte Patil Life Republic: Highlights of Kolte Patil Life Republic is describe in very exclusive way which is very necessary for the today’s life style which is are as- 24X7 Assured Security Service, 24 X 7 Power backup, Swimming Pool, Club Class party Lawn, Kid’s play Ground, With good facilities such as Sports Complex, enthusiastic Sports Clubs, Olympic Size Swimming Pool, Jogging Track, Cycling Track, Adventure Sports Club and many more highlights in to the Apartment according to your life style by which you sure fallen love with Life Republic Hinjewadi Pune.

Kolte Patil Builder: Kolte Patil Real Estate builder is part of a making building in large Scale for the Customers, which provide easy and fast possession time period to the customer within the considerable market price, Kolte Patil spread their popularity to the all over India for making India’s best Apartment for the Customers.

Allcheckdeals is India’s first and most prominent and reliable online brokerage company for Real Estate It’s offers Kolte Patil Life Republic original booking with best prices.